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Andaman & Nicobar

A Comprehensive Expedition Handbook!

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  • Introduction

  • Geography

  • History

  • Culture


The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, an Indian archipelago in the Bay of Bengal, is a tropical paradise renowned for its pristine beaches, lush forests, and vibrant marine life. Comprising over 500 islands, this exotic destination offers a blend of adventure, tranquility, and natural beauty. Visitors can explore stunning coral reefs, enjoy water sports, and immerse themselves in the rich cultural heritage of the indigenous tribes. The islands' diverse ecosystems, featuring rare flora and fauna, make it a haven for nature enthusiasts. With its crystal-clear waters and serene environment, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands promise an unforgettable escape from the hustle and bustle of everyday life.


The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a picturesque archipelago in the Bay of Bengal, comprise over 570 islands, islets, and rocks. These islands, belonging to India, stretch over approximately 800 kilometers from north to south. The Andaman group consists of 325 islands, while the Nicobar group contains 24.

Geographically, the islands boast a mix of hilly terrains, lush forests, and serene beaches. The highest peak, Saddle Peak, rises to 732 meters in North Andaman. The islands are covered with tropical rainforests, home to diverse flora and fauna, including several endemic species. The coastal areas feature stunning coral reefs and mangrove swamps.

The climate is typically tropical, with heavy rainfall during the monsoon season from May to September and moderate temperatures throughout the year. The Andaman Sea to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west influence the islands' weather patterns, ensuring a humid and warm climate.

Geologically, the islands are part of a submerged mountain range that extends from Myanmar to Indonesia, and they are seismically active, prone to earthquakes and tsunamis.

The capital, Port Blair, located in South Andaman, serves as the administrative hub. The strategic location of these islands has historically made them significant for maritime trade and military purposes. The rich biodiversity, pristine beaches, and vibrant marine life make the Andaman and Nicobar Islands a paradise for nature enthusiasts and travelers alike.


The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, an archipelago located in the Bay of Bengal, have a rich and diverse history that spans thousands of years. The earliest evidence of human habitation dates back to the Paleolithic era. The indigenous tribes, including the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarwa, and Sentinalese, have lived in isolation for centuries, maintaining their distinct cultures and traditions.

In ancient times, the islands were known to mariners and traders. The Greek astronomer Ptolemy referred to them as the "Islands of Good Fortune." Later, the Chinese traveler I-Tsing visited the islands around the 7th century. Despite their early mention in historical records, the islands remained relatively isolated from the major civilizations of Asia.

European interest in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands began in the 16th century. The first European to set foot on the islands was the Venetian traveler Marco Polo, who described the inhabitants as "hostile and cannibalistic." In 1789, the British established a naval base and a penal colony on Chatham Island near present-day Port Blair. However, this initial settlement was abandoned due to disease and resistance from the indigenous tribes.

The British resumed their interest in the islands in the 19th century. In 1857, following the Indian Rebellion, the British established a permanent penal colony in Port Blair to house Indian freedom fighters and convicts. This colony became infamous for its harsh conditions and brutal treatment of prisoners. The Cellular Jail, completed in 1906, stands as a grim reminder of this period. It became known as "Kala Pani" or "Black Water," a term that symbolized the dread of being transported across the seas to an uncertain fate.

During World War II, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands came under Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945. This period saw significant changes, including infrastructure development and the promotion of local leadership. The islands were also the site of atrocities committed by the Japanese forces against the local population and Allied prisoners of war. Subhas Chandra Bose, a prominent Indian nationalist leader, visited the islands in 1943 and hoisted the Indian flag, declaring them the first Indian territory to be freed from British rule.

After India gained independence in 1947, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were incorporated into the Indian Union. The strategic importance of the islands was recognized, leading to the establishment of a significant naval presence. The islands were administered as a Union Territory, with Port Blair as its capital.

In recent decades, the islands have seen development and modernization, with a focus on tourism and infrastructure. However, efforts have also been made to preserve the unique cultural heritage and biodiversity of the islands. The indigenous tribes, who have faced numerous challenges due to external influences and modernization, are now protected by laws that restrict access to their habitats and safeguard their rights.

The history of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a testament to their strategic importance and the resilience of their people. From ancient mariners to colonial powers, and from wartime occupation to modern development, these islands have witnessed a fascinating interplay of cultures and events. Today, they stand as a vibrant part of India, offering a blend of historical intrigue, natural beauty, and cultural diversity.


The culture of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a vibrant tapestry woven from the diverse ethnic backgrounds of its inhabitants, the indigenous tribes, and the settlers from mainland India and Southeast Asia. This cultural mosaic is characterized by a harmonious blend of traditional practices, languages, festivals, and cuisines.

Indigenous Tribes

The indigenous tribes of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarwa, and Sentinalese in the Andaman group, and the Nicobarese and Shompens in the Nicobar group, have maintained their unique cultural identities for thousands of years. These tribes have their own languages, customs, and traditional ways of life, largely centered around hunting, gathering, and fishing.

The Great Andamanese, for instance, have a rich oral tradition with stories and songs passed down through generations. The Nicobarese, on the other hand, are known for their intricate wood carvings and traditional dances, which are integral to their community celebrations. Despite modern influences, efforts are made to preserve these indigenous cultures through various government initiatives and legal protections.

Settler Communities

The majority of the population in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands today comprises settlers from various parts of India, including Bengalis, Tamils, Telugus, and Malayalis, as well as people from Myanmar and Bangladesh. This demographic diversity has led to a unique cultural fusion. For example, the main languages spoken on the islands include Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, and English, reflecting the linguistic variety of the settlers.


The cultural diversity of the islands is vividly reflected in their festivals. Traditional Indian festivals such as Diwali, Durga Puja, Pongal, Onam, and Christmas are celebrated with great enthusiasm. Additionally, the indigenous tribes have their own festivals and rituals. For instance, the Nicobarese celebrate the ‘Ossuary Feast’ or the Pig Festival, a major event involving the sacrifice of pigs, communal feasting, and dancing, which marks the death anniversary of a relative.


The cuisine of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a delightful amalgamation of indigenous flavors and settler influences. Seafood, including fish, crab, and lobster, is a staple due to the islands’ maritime geography. Traditional Nicobarese cuisine features dishes like “Fish Curry” made with local spices and coconut milk. The influence of Bengali settlers is evident in the popularity of rice and fish curry, while South Indian settlers contribute dishes like dosa, idli, and sambar.

Arts and Crafts

The islands are also known for their distinctive arts and crafts. The Nicobarese are skilled in basket weaving, using locally available materials like cane and bamboo to create functional and decorative items. The indigenous tribes of the Andaman Islands are known for their wood carvings, creating intricate designs on various objects.

Music and Dance

Music and dance play a crucial role in the cultural life of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tribal dances, often performed during festivals and community gatherings, are vibrant and expressive. The Nicobarese traditional dance, with its rhythmic movements and colorful attire, is particularly famous. Settler communities also contribute to the cultural landscape with classical and folk dances from different parts of India, such as Bharatanatyam, Kathak, and Bhangra.

Contemporary Culture

In contemporary times, the islands’ culture continues to evolve, integrating modern influences while striving to preserve traditional values. The establishment of cultural festivals, museums, and cultural centers aims to celebrate and protect the rich heritage of the islands. The islands’ educational institutions and media also play a role in promoting cultural awareness and integration.

Overall, the culture of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a dynamic and multifaceted one, reflecting the resilience and adaptability of its people amidst changing times. It stands as a testament to the harmonious coexistence of diverse cultural traditions in a unique geographical setting.